By Michael C. K. Khoo (auth.)
As the present millennium steams in the direction of an in depth, one can't aid yet glance with amazement on the very good quantity of development that has been completed in medication in precisely the previous few many years. A key contributing issue to this luck has been the importation and mixing of principles and strategies from disciplines outdoor the normal borders of clinical technology. in recent times, the main famous instance is the cross-pollination among molecular biology and medication. Advances pushed through this effective blend have spawned the imaginative and prescient of a destiny the place remedies according to gene remedy develop into regular. but, as we proceed our look for "magic bullets" within the quest to get rid of disorder, it very important to acknowledge the price of different less-heralded interdisciplinary efforts that experience laid a wide a part of the basis of present-day drugs. In pulmonary drugs, the contribution from the bioengineers (a diversified choice of participants cross-bred to varied levels in mathematical modeling and experimental body structure) has been higher and extra sustained than in lots of different clinical specialties. you'll be able to aspect to the big array of ventilators, blood-gas analyzers, oximeters, pulmonary functionality units, and breathing screens which are found in any smooth scientific atmosphere as sturdy proof of the profitable synergy among engineering technology and pulmonary drugs. although, one must never overlook the fewer tangible, yet probably extra vital, contributions which have been derived from mathematical modeling and computing device simulation, with out which a lot of those smooth tools do not have come into existence.
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Extra resources for Bioengineering Approaches to Pulmonary Physiology and Medicine
And rising \K*&]. Bottom: same parameters except for absence of central command. the well-known studies of Dejours" and diagram of Whipp^''. There are transient changes of arterial and medullary PCO^ but they have the same value at 6 min of exercise as they did at rest. The bottom panel of Fig. 23 shows the same rate of exercise in the model which has been set up so that all parameters are the same, except that the central command has been removed. 5 mm Hg) PCO2 levels. The model thus supports the idea that the neural central command is necessary for the rapid ventilatory response to exercise and for the maintainance of isocapnia in the steady-state.
Central neural respiratory stimulatory effect of active respiration. J. Appl. Phvsiol. 37: 723-735, 1974. 29. M. The physiological basis ofcentral apnea and periodic breathing. Curr Pulmonol. 10: 265-326, 1989. 30. E. Millhom. Oscillation, gating, and memory in the respiratory control system. In: Handbook of Physiology. The Respiratory System, Control of Breathing. Bethesda, MD: Am. Physiol. Soc. 1986. sect. 3, Vol. ILpt. 1, Chapt. 3, pp. 93-114. 31. Khoo. K. Periodic breathing. In: The Lung: Scientific Foundations.
However, if we only look at a specific state, such as the awake resting state or the slow wave sleep state, then A^ is relatively constant. Generally, if the system characteristics do not depend on the period being analyzed, then the system (or the signal the system delivers) is called stationary. Under the assumption of a stationary state. Ay can be estimated to be a constant and the impulse and frequency responses can be calculated and thus the responses to a given stimulus can be predicted. In other words, if the signal is not stationary,thcn the application of the AR model with constant AR coefficients (Ay) will produce erroneous results.