Download Becoming Confederates: Paths to a New National Loyalty by Gary W. Gallagher PDF

By Gary W. Gallagher

In Becoming Confederates, Gary W. Gallagher explores loyalty within the period of the Civil conflict, concentrating on Robert E. Lee, Stephen Dodson Ramseur, and Jubal A. Early—three fashionable officials within the military of Northern Virginia who turned ardent accomplice nationalists. Loyalty was once confirmed and proved in lots of methods top as much as and through the conflict. taking a look at degrees of allegiance to their local nation, to the slaveholding South, to the USA, and to the Confederacy, Gallagher indicates how those males symbolize responses to the mid-nineteenth-century crisis.

Lee often has been awarded as a reluctant convert to the Confederacy whose strongest identity used to be together with his domestic nation of Virginia—an interpretation at odds along with his way more complicated variety of loyalties. Ramseur, the youngest of the 3, eagerly embraced a accomplice id, highlighting generational changes within the equation of loyalty. Early mixed components of Lee's and Ramseur's reactions—a Unionist who grudgingly approved Virginia's departure from the us yet later got here to personify defiant accomplice nationalism.

The paths of those males towards accomplice loyalty support delineate vital contours of yankee heritage. Gallagher exhibits that americans juggled a number of, frequently conflicting, loyalties and that white southern identification used to be preoccupied with racial regulate transcending politics and sophistication. certainly, figuring out those men's views makes it tricky to argue that the Confederacy shouldn't be deemed a kingdom. maybe most crucial, their studies aid us comprehend why Confederates waged a prodigiously bloody conflict and the style during which they handled defeat.

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But the doctrine of moral betterment, carried through logically, is not content with holding that a moral may be pointed from a work of art; on the contrary, it would want the moral instruction to shine forth clearly as the substantial aim of the work of art, and indeinTafld expressly permit the presentation of none but moral subjects, moral characters, actions, and events. For art can choose its subjects, and is thus distinct from history or the sciences, which have their material given to them.

The result is that now consciousness wanders about in this contradiction, and, driven from one side to the other, cannot find satisfaction for itself in either the one or the other. For on the one side we see man imprisoned in the common world of reality and earthly temporality, borne down by need and poverty, hard pressed by nature, enmeshed in matter, sensuous ends and their enjoyment, mastered and carried away by natural impulses and passions. On the other side, he lifts himself to eternal ideas, to a realm of thought and freedom, gives to himself, as will, universal laws and prescriptions, strips the world of its enlivened and flowering reality and dissolves it into abstractions, since the spirit now upholds its right and dignity only by mishandling nature and denying its right, and so retaliates on nature the distress and violence which it has suffered from it itself.

This activity is the rational element which exists as spirit only in so far as it actively drives itself forth into consciousness, yet what it bears within itself it places before itself only in sensuous form. Thus this activity has a spiritual content which yet it configurates sensuously because only in this sensuous guise can it gain knowledge of the content. This can be compared with the characteristic mentality of a man experienced in life, or even of a man of quick wit and ingenuity, who, although he knows perfectly well what matters in life, what in substance holds men together, what moves them, what power dominates them, nevertheless has neither himself grasped this knowledge in general rules nor expounded it to others in general reflections.

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