By G. Slutkin (auth.), Prof. F. Paccaud, Dr. J. P. Vader, Prof. F. Gutzwiller (eds.)
In so much nations, basic prevention programmes opposed to the HIV / AIDS epidemic were applied. ordinarily, 3 degrees of intervention should be pointed out: - nationwide campaigns directed to the overall inhabitants; such a lot of them are multi part campaigns geared toward supplying information regarding HIV transmission and protecting behaviour; they use some of the mass media channels and are as a rule directed to sexual behaviour modifi cation; - community-based interventions, addressed to express aim popula tions; those populations were often chosen in keeping with either the excessive chance of an infection (gay males and prostitutes) and the trouble to arrive the participants of those groups (intravenous drug users); - person checking out and counselling, frequently supported via public money or huge non-governmental agencies. significant efforts were dedicated to the advance and the implemen tation of those preventive programmes, either by way of human re resources and fiscal aid. however, in such a lot nations, some distance much less power has been placed into the overview of those campaigns. This hole isn't defined via the truth that evaluate of AIDS/HIV cam paigns is a wholly new problem by way of technique: there are classical equipment, built over two decades and utilized in different fields of prevention.
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Additional info for Assessing AIDS Prevention: Selected papers presented at the international conference held in Montreux (Switzerland), October 29–November 1, 1990
If they know an activity failed to reach its specific goal they can cancel it or redo it. Yet when we take off our evaluation hats we know well that most public programs are political programs whose structure and even operations are worked out in negotiations among concerned constituencies. Once the money's been spent, the people hired, and the participating institutions are accruing benefits, flexibility is likely to be limited. The leverage of information about effectiveness, particularly if it is negative information, is going to be constrained.
0 11 j d • n 11 10 30 i 20 /// 10 -,,' 78 79 80 81 82 83 8• 85 86 87 88 YR Figure 4. Cohort HIV incidence and prevalence. San Francisco. If, as seems likely, there was considerable heterogeneity in the cohort as regards sexual partner change, the decline in incidence after 1983 might merely reflect the fact that those whose behaviour put them at risk had already been infected by that time, The second source of prospective data is routine surveillance, While these data can provide useful information on time trends in STD incidence, corresponding information on trends in HIV incidence has seldom been collected in a way which allows valid comparisons to be made.
Defining the possible questions to investigate and then choosing among them is no less a responsibility of the evaluator than choosing the research methods for obtaining answers. c) One productive approach to defining questions includes the explicit statement of both an operational model and a conceptual model for a program. d) Choosing which questions to answer will involve considerations of i) possible leverage that knowing the answer to a given question will have in project operations, ii) prior knowledge of where trouble is likely to be found in a project, and iii) the feasibility of obtaining a credible answer to a question in a timely fashion.