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By J. F. Nunn (Auth.)

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Sample text

Conversely, turbulent flow is more effective than laminar flow in purging the contents of a tube. Turbulent flow provides the best conditions for drawing a representative sample of gas from the periphery of a tube. Quantitative relationships during turbulent flow The relationship between driving pressure and flow rate differs from the relationship described above for laminar flow in three important respects: 1. The driving pressure is proportional to the square of the required gas flow rate. 2.

4a. Since the pleural cavity is normally empty, it is not strictly correct to speak of an intrapleural pressure and, furthermore, it would not be constant throughout the pleural 'cavity'. 3 as applying to various horizontal strata of the lung, each with its own volume and therefore its own transmural pressure gradient on which its own 'intrapleural' pressure would depend. 3 Relationship between lung volume and the difference in pressure between the alveoli and the intrathoracic space (transmural pressure gradient).

4 kPa (4 c m H 2 0 ) , which is rather less than the normal transmural pressure at FRC. If the alveolar lining fluid had the same surface tension as water (72 mN/m), the lungs would be very stiff. 05 mmHg and the Laplace equation indicates that, if the surface tension of the alveolus is the same, its pressure should be double the pressure in the left-hand alveolus. Thus gas would tend to flow from smaller alveoli into larger alveoli and the lung would be unstable which, of course, is not the case.

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