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By N. Bowditch

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Since the chart datum is generally a computed mean or average height at some state of the tide, the depth of water at any particular moment may be less than shown on the chart. For example, if the chart datum is mean lower low water, the depth of water at lower low water will be less than the charted depth about as often as it is greater. A lower depth is indicated in the tide tables by a minus sign (–). ed in Section K of Chart No. 1. A rock uncovered at mean high water may be shown as an islet.

If grid directions are to be used, it is important that all units in related operations use charts on the same projection, with the same standard parallels, so that a single grid direction exists between any two points. Nuclear powered submarine operations under the polar icecap have increased the need for grid directions in marine navigation. SPECIAL CHARTS 322. Plotting Sheets Position plotting sheets are “charts” designed primarily for open ocean navigation, where land, visual aids to navigation, and depth of water are not factors in navigation.

To map just such an area: the Mediterranean Sea. 313. Lambert Conformal Projection Figure 312a. A simple conic projection. The useful latitude range of the simple conic projection can be increased by using a secant cone intersecting the earth at two standard parallels. See Figure 313. The area between the two standard parallels is compressed, and that beyond is expanded. Such a projection is called either a secant conic or conic projection with two standard parallels. Figure 312b. A simple conic map of the Northern Hemisphere.

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