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By Harold D. Holder

An individual's selection to exploit alcohol and the frequency, volume, and occasions of use are the results of a mix of organic and social elements. consuming isn't just a private selection, but in addition a question of customized and social habit, and is stimulated by means of entry and fiscal elements together with degrees of disposable source of revenue and value of alcoholic drinks. till prevention efforts stop to concentration narrowly at the person and start to undertake broader neighborhood views on alcohol difficulties and methods to minimize them, those efforts will fail. the writer demanding situations the present implicit types utilized in alcohol challenge prevention and demonstrates an ecological point of view of the group as a fancy adaptive procedure composed of interacting subsystems. this crucial quantity represents a brand new and brilliant method of the prevention of alcohol dependence and alcohol-related difficulties.

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Extra resources for Alcohol and the Community: A Systems Approach to Prevention

Example text

For summaries of international research on the relationship between price and alcohol consumption, see Osterberg, 1995. Physical availability of alcohol The retail availability of alcohol influences the level of consumption. Extreme restrictions on the number of outlets can reduce the level of consumption and various indications of alcohol problems. Prohibition (both in the US and in other nations) did result in lowered consumption rates, even allowing for illegal alcohol consumption (Bruun et al, 1975; Moore & Gerstein, 1981).

Group-specific risk rates linked to levels of alcohol consumption determine the frequency of alcohol-associated deaths, illnesses, and injuries ( Howland & Hingson, 1987, 1988; Cherpitel 1989,1993). Increases in alcohol-involved mortality and morbidity can trigger social activity and, consequently, formal regulatory activity Subsystem interactions 25 aimed at reducing consumption or behaviors associated with alcoholinvolved problems. This subsystem also responds to the demand for social and health services related to drinking, and permits a community to track increases (or decreases) in provision of health and social services related to drinking.

Following work by Larsen (1969), the US Environmental Protection Agency has based air pollution standards on lognormal distributions. Lognormal distributions have been applied to such diverse phenomena as labor turnover (McLean, 1976), the metal content of rock chips (Krige, 1966), insurance claims (Seal, 1969), and economic variables, such as income (Aitchison & Brown, 1957) and consumer demand (Crouch & Oglesby, 1978). 1 illustrates a right-skewed continuous distribution of consumption; the vertical axis represents the percentage of drinkers at each consumption level, and the horizontal axis represents mean daily consumption in ounces of absolute ethanol.

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