By Miles McPhee
At a time whilst the polar areas are present process speedy and extraordinary swap, realizing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is necessary for realistically predicting the longer term nation of sea ice. by way of supplying a size platform principally unaffected via floor waves, drifting sea ice presents a different laboratory for learning facets of geophysical boundary layer flows which are super tricky to degree in different places. This publication attracts on either wide observations and theoretical ideas to advance a concise description of the influence of rigidity, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that keep an eye on exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean whilst sea ice is current. a number of fascinating and special observational information units are used to demonstrate diversified facets of ice-ocean interplay starting from the impression of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice sector, to how nonlinearities within the equation of country for seawater impact blending within the Weddell Sea.
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Additional info for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
B Deviatory temperature. c. Deviatory salinity as measured with a microstructure conductivity sensor. e Product series of w times T , mean value is indicated by the dashed line, equivalent to a downward heat ﬂux of 70 W m−2 . e wS series, with downward salt ﬂux from freezing. 4 Estimating Confidence Limits for Covariance Calculations A variation on the bootstrap method (Efron and Gong 1983; Emery and Thomson 2001) provides estimates of conﬁdence limits for the covariance statistics used to derive turbulent ﬂuxes.
The system is thermobarically unstable (see Akitomo 1999) limits mixing driven from the surface, forming a new, shallower near surface layer. 5 The fact remains that if melting at the ice/ocean interface is too weak or too slow to counteract the combined effects of surface buoyancy loss from cooling and the cabbeling/thermobaricity mechanism at the base of the mixed layer, then convection will continue (McPhee 2003). Once the ice cover is gone and the air remains cold, there is nothing except horizontal advection of ice or fresh water to quell deep mixing, and essentially a direct connection between the abyssal ocean and the atmosphere is established.
D. thesis: Inertial Oscillations in the Mediterranean. MIT/WHOI (1970) Skyllingstad, E. , Paulson, C. , Pegau, W. , McPhee, M. : Effects of keels on ice bottom turbulence exchange. J. Geophys. 1029/2002JC001488 McDougall, T. : Thermobaricity, cabbeling, and water-mass conversion. J. Geophys. , 92 (C5), 5448–5464 (1987) Tennekes, H. and Lumley, J. : A First Course in Turbulence. MIT, Cambridge, MA (1972) Nomenclature γ Fγ Qγ T S ρ p R = xi + yj + zk u = ui + vj + wk τ ∼ τ = τ13 i + τ13 j = u w + i∗ v w ω f M Scw , Sccw Dcw , Dccw βT βS ρ0 Arbitrary ﬂuid property Flux of γ Source of γ Temperature Salinity expressed psu (units of the practical salinity scale) Fluid density Pressure Position vector Vector velocity Reynolds stress tensor Horizontal Reynolds traction vector Angular velocity Coriolis parameter Volume transport Clockwise and counterclockwise inertial components Clockwise and counterclockwise diurnal tidal components Thermal expansion factor Saline contraction factor Potential density (density at surface pressure) Chapter 3 Turbulence Basics Abstract: When differential motion occurs between a sea ice cover and the upper ocean, momentum is exchanged across a turbulent boundary layer.